|  e-ISSN: 2757-5772

Original article | Innovational Research in ELT 2022, Vol. 3(2) 12-19

The Metaverse in Foreign Language Learning: A Theoretical Framework

Selami Aydın

pp. 12 - 19   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/irelt.2022.505.2   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2209-22-0007

Published online: December 31, 2022  |   Number of Views: 46  |  Number of Download: 279


Inevitably, recent ideas and developments in the metaverse that are based on social interactions can profoundly influence the foreign language learning process since the core of the mentioned process is communication and interaction. However, whether the metaverse can be used in foreign language learning remains a crucial question that is unanswered within a theoretical framework. This paper aims to provide a theoretical basis regarding the use of metaverse in foreign language learning. For this purpose, it first defines and introduces the metaverse, gives a brief history of the concept, and introduces Metaversal games. Then, it focuses on the relationship between the use of the metaverse and the theoretical points of view. It concludes that the metaverse platform can be used as an effective language learning environment in light of the current theories, approaches, and models. The paper also discusses certain problems regarding the use of the metaverse as a language learning platform. 

Keywords: Foreign language learning; the metaverse; theoretical framework

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Aydin, S. (2022). The Metaverse in Foreign Language Learning: A Theoretical Framework . Innovational Research in ELT, 3(2), 12-19. doi: 10.29329/irelt.2022.505.2

Aydin, S. (2022). The Metaverse in Foreign Language Learning: A Theoretical Framework . Innovational Research in ELT, 3(2), pp. 12-19.

Chicago 16th edition
Aydin, Selami (2022). "The Metaverse in Foreign Language Learning: A Theoretical Framework ". Innovational Research in ELT 3 (2):12-19. doi:10.29329/irelt.2022.505.2.


    Aborisade, P. (2013). Blended learning in English for academic purposes courses: a Nigerian case study. In B. Tomlinson & C. Whittaker (Eds.), Blended learning in English language teaching: Course design and implementation (pp. 35–42). British Council.

    Anderson, T., & Elloumi, F. (2004). Theory and practice of online learning. Athabasca University.

    Arnold, J. (1999). Affect in language learning. Cambridge University Press.

    Benson, P. (2007). Teachers’ and learners’ perspectives on autonomy. In T. Lamb & H. Reinders (Eds.), Learner and teacher autonomy: Concepts, realities, and response (pp. 15-32). John Benjamins Publishing.

    Brown, J., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32-42. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X018001032

    Chen, Y., Wang, Y., Kinshuk, & Chen, N. (2014). Is FLIP enough? Or should we use the FLIPPED model instead? Computers & Education, 79, 16–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.07.004

    Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal learning environments, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(1), 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.06.002

    Dang, H. (2006). Learner-centeredness and EFL instruction in Vietnam: A case study. International Education Journal, 7(4), 598-610.

    Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2012). Self-Determination theory. In P. Van Lange, A. Kruglanski, & E. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (pp. 416-437). SAGE Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446249215.n21

    Ellis, R. (1999). Learning a second language through interaction. John Benjamins Publishing.

    Er, M., Altunay, U., & Yurdabakan, I. (2012). The effects of active learning on foreign language self-concept and reading comprehension achievement. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 3(4), 43-58.

    Filiz, O., & Kurt, A. (2013). Flipped learning: Misunderstandings and the truth. Journal of Educational Sciences Research, 5(1), 215-229.

    Grimshaw, M. (2014). The Oxford handbook of virtuality. Oxford University Press.

    Hammond, J., & Gibbons, P. (2001). What is scaffolding? In J. Hammond (Ed.), Scaffolding teaching and learning in language and literary education (pp. 1-14). Primary English Teaching Association.

    Hayward, S., Dulaney, K., Egan, B., Plummer, D., Deighton, N., & Reynolds, M. (2000). Beyond the Internet: The ‘Supranet.

    Hockly, N. (2018). Blended learning. ELT Journal, 72(1), 97-101. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccx058

    Kohonen, V. (1992). Experiential language learning: Second language learning as cooperative learner education. In D. Nunan (Ed.), Collaborative language learning and teaching (pp. 14-39). Cambridge University Press.

    Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Pergamon Press.

    Little, D. (1995). Learning as dialogue: The dependence of learner autonomy on teacher autonomy. System, 23(2), 175–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251X(95)00006-6

    Long, M. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 413-468). Academic Press.

    Long, M., & Porter, P. (1985). Group work, interlanguage talk, and second language acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 19(2), 207. https://doi.org/10.2307/3586827

    Macaskill, A., & Denovan, A. (2013). Developing autonomous learning in first year university students using perspectives from positive psychology. Studies in Higher Education, 38(1), 124-142. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.566325

    Matthew, K., Felvegi, E., & Callaway, R. (2009). Wiki as a collaborative learning tool in a language arts methods class. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(1), 51-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/15391523.2009.10782541

    McGuire, M., & Raleigh, M. (1986). Behavioral and physiological correlates of ostracism. Ethology and Sociobiology, 7(3-4), 187–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095(86)90047-6

    Mercer, S. (2011). The beliefs of two expert EFL learners. Language Learning Journal, 39(1), 57-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2010.521571

    Meyers, M. (1993). Teaching to diversity: Teaching and learning in the multi-ethnic classroom. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

    Nezlek, J., & Derks, P. (2001). Use of humor as a coping mechanism, psychological adjustment, and social interaction. Humor - International Journal of Humor Research, 14(4), 395-413. https://doi.org/10.1515/humr.2001.011

    O’loughlin, M. (2007). Rethinking science education: Beyond piagetian constructivism toward a sociocultural model of teaching and learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29(8), 791-820. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660290805

    Peterson, C., & McCabe, A. (1994). A social interactionist account of developing decontextualized narrative skill. Developmental Psychology, 30(6), 937–948. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.30.6.937

    Peterson, M. (2012). EFL learner collaborative interaction in Second Life. ReCALL, 24(1), 20-39. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344011000279

    Piaget, J. (2005). Language and thought of the child. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203992739

    Poth, R. (2022). Metaverse and education: What do we need to know? https://www.gettingsmart.com/2022/04/18/metaverse-and-education-what-do-we-need-to-know/

    Prapaisit de Segovia, L., & Hardison, D. M. (2008). Implementing education reform: EFL teachers’ perspectives. ELT Journal, 63(2), 154–162. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccn024

    Resnick, L. (2018). Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser. Routledge.

    Robertson, A., & Peters, J. (2021). What is the metaverse, and do I have to care? https://www.theverge.com/22701104/metaverse-explained-fortnite-roblox-facebook-horizon

    Romero, M., Buzón-García, O., & Touron, J. (2019). The flipped learning model in online based education for secondary teachers. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 9(2), 109. https://doi.org/10.3926/jotse.435

    Roose, K. (2021, October 30). View: The metaverse is Zuckerberg’s escape hatch. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/10/29/technology/meta-facebook-zuckerberg.html

    Ryan, S., Scott, B., Freeman, H., & Patel, D. (2013). The virtual university: The internet and resource-based learning. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315042022

    Semin, G., & Smith, E. (2013). Socially situated cognition in perspective. Social Cognition, 31(2), 125-146. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.2013.31.2.125

    Tappan, M. (1997). Language, culture, and moral development: A Vygotskian perspective. Developmental Review, 17(1), 78-100. https://doi.org/10.1006/drev.1996.0422

    Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. In M. Gauvain & M. Cole (Eds.), Readings on the development of children (pp. 34-40). Scientific American Books.

    Wagner, E. (1994). In support of a functional definition of interaction. American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 6–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923649409526852

    Wheeler, L., & Nezlek, J. (1977). Sex differences in social participation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(10), 742–754. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.35.10.742

    Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17(2), 89-100. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1976.tb00381.x

    Xiao, Y., & Yang, M. (2019). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: How formative assessment supports students’ self-regulation in English language learning. System, 81, 39-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2019.01.004

    Yashima, T., Zenuk-Nishide, L., & Shimizu, K. (2004). The influence of attitudes and effect on willingness to communicate and second language communication. Language Learning, 54(1), 119-152. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00250.x

    Ybarra, O., Burnstein, E., Winkielman, P., Keller, M., Manis, M., Chan, E., & Rodriguez, J. (2008). Mental exercising through simple socializing: Social interaction promotes general cognitive functioning. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(2), 248-259. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167207310454

    Zhang, Y. (2010). Cooperative language learning and foreign language learning and teaching. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(1), 81–83. https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.1.1.81-83

    Zimmerman, B. (2002). Academic motivation of adolescents. In T. Pajares, F. & Urdan (Ed.), Achieving self-regulation (pp. 1–28). CT: Information Age.

    Zuckerman, G. (2003). The learning activity in the first years of schooling: The developmental path toward reflection. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. Ageyev, & S. Miller (Eds.), Vygotsky’s educational theory in cultural context (pp. 177-199). Cambridge University Press.