|  e-ISSN: 2757-5772

Original article | Innovational Research in ELT 2021, Vol. 2(1) 1-12

Occupational Stressors of Novice EFL Teachers in Turkey

Dila Bozkurt

pp. 1 - 12   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/irelt.2020.347.1   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2103-12-0004.R1

Published online: June 07, 2021  |   Number of Views: 121  |  Number of Download: 793


This study aims to investigate the occupational stressors that novice EFL teachers encounter, how these stressors affect them, and whether they tend to use resilience strategies or experience burnout symptoms. Within the qualitative research method, the data was collected through semi-structured interviews from three novice EFL teachers. The data were analyzed by coding and categorizing. The findings show that novice EFL teachers experience multiple stressors related to being inexperienced, students, parents, school administrations, lesson preparation, using a second language, preparing more materials, dealing with many skill areas, not being seen as important as other subjects and social stigmas. Also, they tend to use resilience strategies like social support, collaborating, being prepared, separating teacher identity and self-identity and acceptance rather than experiencing burnout.

Keywords: occupational stress, resilience strategies, burnout, novice EFL teachers

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Bozkurt, D. (2021). Occupational Stressors of Novice EFL Teachers in Turkey . Innovational Research in ELT, 2(1), 1-12. doi: 10.29329/irelt.2020.347.1

Bozkurt, D. (2021). Occupational Stressors of Novice EFL Teachers in Turkey . Innovational Research in ELT, 2(1), pp. 1-12.

Chicago 16th edition
Bozkurt, Dila (2021). "Occupational Stressors of Novice EFL Teachers in Turkey ". Innovational Research in ELT 2 (1):1-12. doi:10.29329/irelt.2020.347.1.


    Barutçu, E., &Serinkan, C. (2013). Burnout syndrome of teachers: An empirical study in Denizli in Turkey. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 89, 318-322.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.853

    Boyle, G. J., Borg, M. G., Falzon, J. M., & Baglioni Jr, A. J. (1995). A structural model of the dimensions of teacher stress. British Journal of Educational Psychology65(1), 49-67.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1995.tb01130.x

    Caspersen, J., &Raaen, F. D. (2014). Novice teachers and how they cope. Teachers and Teaching, 20(2), 189-211.https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2013.848570

    Castro, A. J., Kelly, J., & Shih, M. (2010). Resilience strategies for new teachers in high-needs areas. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(3), 622-629.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.09.010

    Creswell, J. W. (2013). Steps in conducting a scholarly mixed methods study[PowerPoint slides].DBER Group Discussion on 11, 14. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1047&context=dberspeakers

    Creswell, J. W. (2014). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. SAGE publications.

    Demirel, Y., Güler, N., Toktamış, A., Özdemir, D., &Sezer, R. E. (2005). Burnout among high school teachers in Turkey. Middle East Journal of Family Medicine, 3(3), 33-36.

    Dönmez, Ö., Karasulu, M., Aşantoğrul, S., &Zembat, R. Examination Of Occupational Resilience Beliefs Of In-Service And Pre-Service Early Childhood Education Teachers According To Different Variables.International Online Journal of Education and Teaching. 5(4), s. 724-733.

    Dworkin, A., Haney, C., Dworkin, R., &Telschow, R. (1990). Stress and illness behavior among public school teachers. Educational Administration Quarterly, 26, 60-72.https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X90026001004

    Erdiller, Z. B., &Doğan, Ö. Z. C. A. N. (2015). The examination of teacher stress among Turkish early childhood education teachers. Early Child Development and Care, 185(4), 631-646.https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2014.946502

    Eres, F., & Atanasoska, T. (2011). Occupational stress of teachers: A comparative study between Turkey and Macedonia. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1(7), 59-65.

    Farber, B. A. (1991, April 3-7). Tracing a phenomenon: Teacher burnout and the teacher critics of the 1960s.[Conference presentation]. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL, United States. ED 334185.

    García, F. J., Padilla-Muñoz, E. M., & Carrasco-Ortiz, M. Á. (2005). Personality and contextual variables in teacher burnout. Personality and Individual differences38(4), 929-940.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2004.06.018

    Guler, D., & Ceyhan, E. (2019). School counsellors’ resilience in Turkey: A phenomenological study. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 1-17.https://doi.org/10.1017/jgc.2019.16

    Hanushek, E. A., & Rivkin, S. G. (2006). Teacher quality. In E. Hanushek & S. G. Rivkin (Eds.),Handbook of the Economics of Education, 2, 1051-1078.https://doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0692(06)02018-6

    Heigham, J. and Croker, R.A. (2009). Qualitative Research in Applied Linguistics (Part III Qualitative Data Collection Methods). London: Palgrave.https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230239517

    Henderson, N., & Milstein, M. (2003). Resiliency in Schools: Making it happen for students and educators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

                 Higgins, G. (1994). Resilient adults: Overcoming a cruel past. Jossey Bass.

    Hong, J. Y. (2012). Why do some beginning teachers leave the school, and others stay? Understanding teacher resilience through psychological lenses. Teachers and Teaching, 18(4), 417-440.https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2012.696044

    Ingersoll, R. (2003). Is there really a teacher shortage. University of Washington: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy.Retrieved from https://repository.upenn.edu/gse_pubs/133

    Kamali, Z., & Fahim, M. (2011). The Relationship between Critical Thinking Ability of Iranian EFL Learners and Their Resilience Level Facing Unfamiliar Vocabulary Items in Reading. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 2(1).https://doi:10.4304/jltr.2.1.104-111

    King, J. (2016). “It’s time, put on the smile, it’s time!”: The emotional labour of second language teaching within a Japanese university. In C. Gkonou, D. Tatzl, & X (Eds.), New Directions in Language Learning Psychology (pp. 97–112). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

    Kokkinos, C. M. (2007). Job stressors, personality and burnout in primary school teachers. British journal of educational psychology, 77(1), 229-243.https://doi.org/10.1348/000709905X90344

    Kong, M. (2014). Shifting sands: a resilient Asian teacher's identity work in Australia. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(1), 80-92.https://doi.org/10.1080/02188791.2013.822791

    Küçüksüleymanoglu, R. (2011). Burnout Syndrome Levels of Teachers in Special Education Schools in Turkey. International Journal of Special Education, 26(1), 53-63.

    Kyriacou, C., & Sutcliffe, J. (1978). A model of teacher stress. Educational studies, 4(1), 1-6.https://doi.org/10.1080/0305569780040101

    Maddi, S.R., &Khoshaba, D.M (2005). Resilience at work. American Management Association.

    Mahmoodi-Shahrebabaki, M. (2017). The effect of perfectionism on burnout among English language teachers: The mediating role of anxiety. Teachers and teaching, 23(1), 91-105.https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2016.1203776

    Makinen, R., &Kinnunen, U. (1986). Teacher stress over a school year. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 30, 55-70.https://doi.org/10.1080/0031383860300201

    Mansfield, C. F., Beltman, S., Broadley, T., &Weatherby-Fell, N. (2016). Buildingresilience in teachereducation: An evidencedinformedframework. TeachingandTeacherEducation, 54, 77-87.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2015.11.016

                 Maslach, C. 1982. Burnout: The cost of caring.ISHK.

    Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. John Wiley & Sons.

    Michigan Education Association. (2000). Educational testing service presents a mentoring institute. [Brochure]. East Lansing, MI: Author.

    Morettini, B., Luet, K., & Vernon-Dotson, L. (2020). Building Beginning Teacher Resilience: Exploring the Relationship between Mentoring and Contextual Acceptance. The Educational Forum,84(1), 48-62.https://doi.org/10.1080/00131725.2020.1679933

    Morris, B.A. (2002). Measuring resilient characteristics of teachers. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation], University of Georgia, Athens.

    Mousavi, E. S. (2007). Exploring ‘teacher stress in non-native and native teachers of EFL. English Language Teacher Education and Development, 10, 33-41.

    NajiMeidani, E., Pishghadam, R., Ghonsooly, B., & Hosseini Fatemi, A. (2020). Constructing and validating a language teachers’ temporal intelligence scale and examining its relationship with teacher burnout. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 14(1), 51-66.https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2018.1488854

    Özer, N., &Beycioglu, K. (2010). The relationship between teacher professional development and burnout. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 4928-4932.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.797

    Papatraianou, L. H., Strangeways, A., Beltman, S., & Schuberg Barnes, E. (2018). Beginning teacher resilience in remote Australia: A place-based perspective. Teachers and Teaching24(8), 893-914.https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2018.1508430

    Payne, M., & Furnham, A. (1987). Dimensions of occupational stress in West Indian secondary school teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 57, 141- 150.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1987.tb03148.x

    Penington, M., & Ho, B. (1992). A comparison of work-related attitudes of TESOL members with other educators and employee groups: An international survey using The Maslach Burnout Inventory. British Columbia.

    Piechurska-Kuciel, E. (2011). Foreign language teacher burnout: A research proposal. In M. Pawlak (Ed.), Extending the boundaries of research on second language learning and teaching (pp. 211-223). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-20141-7_17

    Richardson, G., Nieiger, B. Jenson, S., &Kumpfer, K. (1990). The resiliency model.Health Education, 21(6), 33-39.

    Rizqi, M. A. (2017). Stress and resilience among EFL teachers: an interview study of an Indonesian junior high school teacher. TEFLIN Journal, 28(1), 22-37.http://dx.doi.org/10.15639/teflinjournal.v28i1/22-37

    Rothstein, J. (2010). Teacher quality in educational production: Tracking, decay, and student achievement. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 125(1), 175-214.https://doi.org/10.1162/qjec.2010.125.1.175

    Rowe, K. (2003). The importance of teacher quality as a key determinant of students’ experiences and outcomes of schooling[Conference proceeding]. Building Teacher Quality: Research Conference.

    Rowe, K. (2004). In good hands? The importance of teacher quality. Educare News: The National Newspaper for All Non-government Schools, (149), 4.

    Sarıçam, H., &Sakız, H. (2014). Burnout and teacher self-efficacy among teachers working in special education institutions in Turkey. Educational Studies, 40(4), 423-437.https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2014.930340

    Solman, R., & Feld, M. (1989). Occupational stress: Perception of teachers in Catholic schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 27, 55-68.https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000002466

    Teven, J. 2007. Teacher temperament: Correlates with teacher caring, burnout, and organizational outcomes. Communication Education 56: 382–400.https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520701361912

    Toker, B. (2011). Burnout among university academicians: An empirical study on the universities of Turkey.Doğuş Üniversitesi Dergisi,12 (1), 114-127.

    Tsang, K. K. (2018). The Structural Causes of Teacher Burnout in Hong Kong. Chinese Education & Society, 51(6), 449-461.https://doi.org/10.1080/10611932.2018.1570797

    Vance, A., Pendergast, D., &Garvis, S. (2015). Teaching resilience: A narrative inquiry into the importance of teacher resilience. Pastoral Care in Education, 33(4), 195-204.https://doi.org/10.1080/02643944.2015.1074265

    Wolin, S. J., & Wolin, S. (1993). The resilient self: How survivors of troubled families rise above adversity. New York: Villard.