|  e-ISSN: 2757-5772

Volume 4 Issue 2 (December 2023)

Issue Information

Volume 4 Issue 2

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bora Demir

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2023.623



Original Articles

Integrating Online Collaborative Writing Into English As A Foreign Language Classes During Distance Education 

Mevlüde Çiçek & Perihan Savaş

pp. 1 - 16   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2023.623.1


For many language learners, the writing process can be a daunting and challenging journey. The present study was conducted to examine the perceptions of 27 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners who collaborated on writing paragraphs using an interactive online platform, Etherpad. The study was carried out over an eight-week period during distance education, where students worked in groups of four using the online tool, Etherpad, to plan, write, and edit their paragraphs outside the classroom. Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered through an online collaborative attitude questionnaire administered at the end of the writing course. The findings from the study indicated that students had generally positive attitudes towards online collaborative writing. However, the study also revealed that there were some challenges encountered while working together, which affected the process.

Keywords: Online collaborative writing, Etherpad, Distance education, English as a foreign language, collaborative writing

Preservice EFL Teachers’ Reflectivity Levels on Evaluation Tasks Assigned During Practicum

Suna Çelik & Evrim Eveyik Aydın

pp. 17 - 27   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2023.623.2


The study aims to determine the predominant level of reflection observed in different evaluation tasks assigned to preservice English language teachers during their practicum. It also investigates whether each participant’s reflectivity level varies based on the type of task. The data involves 207 reflective tasks from nine senior students in an ELT program at a foundation university in Istanbul, analysed using Taggart and Wilson’ Profile of Reflective Thinking rubric. The findings indicate that self-evaluation, peer evaluation, and weekly observation tasks primarily induce technical level reflection, while overall evaluation tasks with guiding questions encourage contextual and dialectical level reflections. Moreover, participants' reflectivity levels change depending on the type of reflective task. Five out of nine preservice teachers, who were initially more focused on technical reflections, exhibited an increase in dialectical and contextual level reflections in their overall evaluation reports. Recognizing this influence is crucial for designing effective teacher training programs that promote higher-level reflective thinking with effective tasks.

Öğretmenlik Uygulaması Sırasında Verilen Değerlendirme Görevlerinde Aday İngilizce Öğretmenlerinin Yansıtma Düzeyleri

Özet: Bu çalışma, İngilizce Öğretmeni adaylarına öğretmenlik uygulamaları sırasında verilen farklı değerlendirme görevlerinde baskın olan yansıtma düzeyini belirlemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Ayrıca, her katılımcının yansıtma düzeyinin göreve bağlı olarak değişip değişmediğini araştırmaktadır. Çalışmanın verisi, bir vakıf üniversitesinin İngilizce Öğretmenliği Programında Öğretmenlik Uygulaması dersine kayıtlı 9 son sınıf öğrencisinin yazdığı 207 adet değerlendirme görevidir, ve bu veriler, Taggart and Wilson’ın Yansıtıcı Düşünme Profili rubriği kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Bulgular, öz-değerlendirme, akran değerlendirmesi ve haftalık gözlem görevlerinin çoğunlukla teknik düzeyde yansıtmaları teşvik ettiğini göstermektedir, ancak soru yönlendirmeli genel değerlendirme görevleri bağlamsal ve diyalektik düzeyde yansımaları teşvik etmektedir. Ayrıca, katılımcıların yansıtma düzeyleri yansıtıcı görev türüne bağlı olarak değişmektedir. Genellikle teknik yansımalar yapan beş katılımcının, genel değerlendirme raporlarında diyalektik ve bağlamsal düzeyde yansımalar yaptığı bulunmuştur. Bu sonuçlar, daha yüksek düzeyde yansıtıcı düşünmeyi teşvik eden farklı değerlendirme görevleriyle etkili öğretmen yetiştirme programlarının tasarlanabilmesi için hayati öneme sahiptir.


 Anahtar Sözcükler: lisans düzeyi öğretmen eğitimi, yansıtıcı görevler, yansıtıcı öğretim, İngilizce Öğretmenliği öğretmenlik uygulaması, aday İngilizce öğretmenleri 

Keywords: Initial teacher education, reflective tasks, reflective teaching, practicum in ELT, EFL preservice teachers

Podcast effect on speaking motivation among EFL learners

Ece Hatice Berk & Selami Aydın

pp. 28 - 41   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2023.623.3


While speaking motivation is one of the most important aspects of English as a foreign language (EFL) context, few studies have focused on the podcast effect on speaking motivation among EFL learners. This study investigates the frequency of listening to podcasts in English and speaking motivation of learners and explores whether learners' speaking motivation differs regarding listening to podcasts in English. In this descriptive study, a background questionnaire, a listening to podcast questionnaire and the Speaking Motivation Scale (SMS) were administered to 158 EFL learners. The results demonstrated that most participants listen to podcasts in English and have a moderate level of speaking motivation. In addition, it was concluded that EFL learners' overall speaking motivation level significantly differs in accordance with their preference to listen to podcasts. 

Keywords: English as a foreign language; speaking motivation; podcast

The impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on EFL instructors’ stress level

Ayşenur Eroğlu Yıldırım & Sevim Inal

pp. 42 - 52   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2023.623.4


The Covid-19 epidemic, which emerged towards the end of 2019 and has influenced the whole world since then, has had many negative effects, especially in terms of health, social, economic, and psychological aspects. The transition from traditional face-to-face education to technology-based distance education has created many difficulties in education. In addition to the difficulties that resulted from the transfer of education to the online environment, many teachers faced additional sociological and psychological problems in their daily lives. In this present study, a survey consisted of two parts was conducted to identify the stress levels and difficulties faced by 20 EFL instructors during the pandemic. The first part includes demographic information while the second part was made up of 3 pre-defined items and one open-ended item. The analysis of the data revealed that the stress levels of instructors increased during the pandemic. In addition, instructors’ commentary revealed that they experienced various difficulties categorized under the headings of social interaction, stress level, and alienation.



Keywords: Covid-19, online learning, stressors, EFL instructors

Critical Pedagogy in English Language Teaching

Dila Bozkurt & Ece Zehir Topkaya

pp. 53 - 58   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2023.623.5


This article explores the integration of critical pedagogy into English Language Teaching (ELT) as a transformative approach that challenges traditional language teaching methods. Language education is deeply intertwined with power dynamics, social hierarchies, and the dissemination of dominant cultural values. By incorporating personal, socio-historical, and political contexts into language learning, critical pedagogy empowers students to critically analyze and engage with the English language and its implications. This article provides an overview of critical pedagogy, its theoretical foundations rooted in critical theory, its core principles, and its relevance to ELT, highlighting the need to address social and political complexities in language education. Furthermore, the article discusses practical ways to integrate critical pedagogy in ELT, such as problem-posing, using critical content and materials, and developing critical tasks. Overall, integrating critical pedagogy in ELT aims to create inclusive learning environments that foster linguistic proficiency, intercultural competence, and active participation in the socio-political sphere.

Keywords: Critical pedagogy, critical language teaching, critical consciousness, problem-posing education

Immersive virtual reality in tertiary level efl education a systematic review of recent applications.

Cigdem Ece & Özlem Balkan & Nazmi Dinçer

pp. 59 - 69   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2023.623.6


The use of virtual reality in foreign language learning has captured the attention of many researchers in recent years. The number of recent systematic reviews which focus specifically on English as a foreign language (EFL) education and Virtual Reality, however, is scarce as it still remains a relatively new technology in language learning. This paper provides a systematic review of 21 research articles published in the literature between the years 2017 and 2022 in the field of teaching and learning English as a foreign language through the use of VR. The main purpose of this systematic review was to identify contexts, features, strategies of VR in foreign language education at higher institutions and to interpret them in terms of their effects on English language learners. In particular, the review focuses on the study contexts, the aim of VR integration, the type of VR technology integrated, the strategies used, the effects on student performance, and future directions included in the research articles. The review demonstrates that VR technologies have a significant positive impact on performance boost in EFL context. The article concludes with limitations such as being confined to English as a foreign language context and addresses directions for future work.

Keywords: Virtual reality, language learning, higher education, systematic review, EFL