|  e-ISSN: 2757-5772

Original article | Innovational Research in ELT 2023, Vol. 4(2) 53-58

Critical Pedagogy in English Language Teaching

Dila Bozkurt & Ece Zehir Topkaya

pp. 53 - 58   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/irelt.2023.623.5   |  Manu. Number: MANU-2306-21-0005.R1

Published online: December 30, 2023  |   Number of Views: 9  |  Number of Download: 78


This article explores the integration of critical pedagogy into English Language Teaching (ELT) as a transformative approach that challenges traditional language teaching methods. Language education is deeply intertwined with power dynamics, social hierarchies, and the dissemination of dominant cultural values. By incorporating personal, socio-historical, and political contexts into language learning, critical pedagogy empowers students to critically analyze and engage with the English language and its implications. This article provides an overview of critical pedagogy, its theoretical foundations rooted in critical theory, its core principles, and its relevance to ELT, highlighting the need to address social and political complexities in language education. Furthermore, the article discusses practical ways to integrate critical pedagogy in ELT, such as problem-posing, using critical content and materials, and developing critical tasks. Overall, integrating critical pedagogy in ELT aims to create inclusive learning environments that foster linguistic proficiency, intercultural competence, and active participation in the socio-political sphere.

Keywords: Critical pedagogy, critical language teaching, critical consciousness, problem-posing education

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Bozkurt, D. & Topkaya, E.Z. (2023). Critical Pedagogy in English Language Teaching . Innovational Research in ELT, 4(2), 53-58. doi: 10.29329/irelt.2023.623.5

Bozkurt, D. and Topkaya, E. (2023). Critical Pedagogy in English Language Teaching . Innovational Research in ELT, 4(2), pp. 53-58.

Chicago 16th edition
Bozkurt, Dila and Ece Zehir Topkaya (2023). "Critical Pedagogy in English Language Teaching ". Innovational Research in ELT 4 (2):53-58. doi:10.29329/irelt.2023.623.5.


    Abednia, A., & Izadinia, M. (2013). “Critical pedagogy in ELT classroom: Exploring contributions of critical literacy to learners’ critical consciousness”. Language Awareness, 22 (4), 338-352. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2012.733400
    Aliakbari, M., & Faraji, E. (2011). “Basic principles of critical pedagogy”. 2nd International Conference on Humanities, Historical and Social Sciences IPEDR. October 21-23, Singapore. 78-85.
    Arıkan, A. (2005). Age, gender and social class in ELT coursebooks: A critical study. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 28(28), 29-38.
    Crookes, G. (2012). Critical pedagogy in language teaching. The encyclopedia of applied linguistics, 1-9.
    Crookes, G. V. (2013). Critical ELT in action: Foundations, promises, praxis. Routledge. Dahrendorf, R. (1958). Toward a theory of social conflict”. Journal of conflict Resolution, 2(2), 170-183. https://doi.org/10.1177/002200275800200204
    Dant, T. (2003). Critical social theory: Culture, society and critique. Sage.
    Darder, A., Baltodano, M. P., & Torres, R. D. (2003). The critical pedagogy reader. Psychology Press.
    Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford University Press.
    Freire, P. (2018). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Bloomsbury Publishing.
    Ghahremani-Ghajar, S. S., & Mirhosseini, S. A. (2005). “English class or speaking about everything class? Dialogue journal writing as a critical EFL literacy practice in an Iranian high school”. Language, culture and curriculum, 18(3), 286-299.https://doi.org/10.1080/07908310508668748
    Gray, J. (2010). The Branding of English and The Culture of the New Capitalism: Representations of the World of Work in English Language Textbooks. Applied Linguistics, 31(5), 714-733.
    Giroux, H. A. (2003). Critical theory and educational practice. In T. Darder, M. P. Baltodano, & R. D. Torres (Eds.), The critical pedagogy reader (pp. 27-56). Psychology Press.
    Gruenewald, D. A. (2003). The Best of Both Worlds: A Critical Pedagogy of Place. Educational Researcher, 32(4), 3–12.doi:10.3102/0013189x032004003
    Guilherme, M. (2007). English as a global language and education for cosmopolitan citizenship. Language and Intercultural Communication, 7(1), 72-90. https://doi.org/10.2167/laic184.0
    Harrington, A. (2005). Modern social theory. Oxford University Press.
    Horkheimer, M. (1972). Critical theory: Selected essays (Vol. 1). A&C Black.
    Khan, C. (2020). Fostering a critical consciousness in ELT: incorporating a women, gender and sexuality course in a bilingual education university program in Bogota, Colombia. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 28(3), 403-420. https://doi.org/10.1080/14681366.2019.1649713
    Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding language teaching: From method to postmethod. Routledge.
    Lather, P. (1998). Critical pedagogy and its complicities: A praxis of stuck places. Educational theory, 48(4), 487-497.
    Luke, A., Luke, C., & Graham, P. (2007). Globalization, corporatism, and critical language education. International Multilingual Research Journal, 1(1), 1-13. DOI: 10.1080/19313150709336861
    Malott, C. S. (2011). Critical pedagogy and cognition: An introduction to a postformal educational psychology. Springer Science & Business Media.
    McLaren, P. (1999) Revolutionary pedagogy in post-revolutionary times: rethinking the political economy of critical education, Educational Theory, 48.
    Mejía, A. (2004). The problem of knowledge imposition: Paulo Freire and critical systems thinking. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 21(1), 63-82.doi:10.1002/sres.558
    Melling, A., & Pilkington, R. (Eds.). (2018). Paulo Freire and transformative education: Changing lives and transforming communities. Springer.
    Monchinski, T. (2008). Critical pedagogy in the everyday classroom. In Critical Pedagogy and the Everyday Classroom (pp. 115-139). Springer.
    Nelson, N., & Chen, J. (2023). Freire’s problem-posing model: critical pedagogy and young learners. ELT Journal, 77(2), 132-144.
    Okazaki, T. (2005). Critical consciousness and critical language teaching. University of Hawai'I Second Langauge Studies Paper 23(2). http://hdl.handle.net/10125/40676
    Pathomchaiwat, L. (2021). Encouraging Critical Pedagogy in Thai ELT Classrooms. Journal of Man and Society Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(2), 151-170.
    Pennycook, A. (1995). English in the world/The world in English. In Power and inequality in language education. Cambridge University Press.
    Pennycook, A. (2001). Critical applied linguistics: A critical introduction. Routledge. Reagan, T. G., & Osborn, T. A. (2001). The foreign language educator in society: Toward a critical pedagogy. Routledge.
    Reagan, T. G., & Osborn, T. A. (2001). The foreign language educator in society: Toward a critical pedagogy. Routledge: UK.
    Shah, S. F. (2012). Gender inclusion: A neglected aspect of the English textbooks in Pakistan. International Journal of Social Sciences & Education, 3(1).
    Shin, J. K. (2004). The use of Freirian pedagogy in teaching English as an international language: Raising the critical consciousness of EFL teachers in Korea. LLC Review, 4(1), 64-82.
    Silva, L. D., Farias, P. F., & D’Ely, R. C. S. F. (2018). Doing Critical English Language Teaching: Designing critical tasks to promote critical media literacy. Revista A Cor das Letras, Feira de Santana, 18, 99-121.
    Silva, L. D. (2020). Critical tasks in action: the role of the teacher in the implementation of tasks designed from a critical perspective. Ilha do Desterro, 73, 109-127. Zehir Topkaya, E. & Demir, B. (2022). Critical Digital Literacy. In S. Kazazoğlu (Ed), Critical Reading and Writing in the 21st Century. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN: 978-1-5275-8385-6