|  e-ISSN: 2757-5772

Volume 5 Issue 1 (June 2024)

Issue Information

Vol 5 Issue 1

pp. i - vi   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2024.1045



Original Articles

Washback Effect of a National English Language Teacher Field Knowledge Test for Teacher Recruitment in Türkiye: A Scale Development Study

Demet Ünal Aydın & Sevgi Şahin

pp. 1 - 19   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2024.1045.1


This study investigates Turkish pre-service EFL teachers' awareness and perception of a high-stakes test, a national English Language Teacher Field Knowledge Test (TFKT) for EFL teacher recruitment in Türkiye. It also seeks to examine the washback effect of TFKT on pre-service EFL teachers’ professional development and EFL teacher education programs. To this end, after a thorough literature analysis, researchers created and validated a new scale. Data were obtained from pre-service EFL teachers who were preparing for TFKT in two phases. First, data were collected from 195 participants for the pilot study, and the scale's reliability and validiy were tested by Cronbach’s Alpha Analysis and Exploratory Factor Analysis. After the necessary revisions, the scale was administered to another group of informants (n.300), and the reliability was checked a second time. The findings emphasized the scale was indeed reliable and valid, preparing the groundwork for further research. As a result, this research provides a reliable assessment tool for evaluating the impact of TFKT on pre-service EFL teachers and EFL teacher education. The established scale shows potential for guiding educational policies and practices, guaranteeing the ongoing enhancement of EFL teacher education programs.

Keywords: EFL teacher education, Teacher Field Knowledge Test, Washback Effect, High-Stakes Tests, Scale Development, Language Assessment, Pre-service EFL Teachers

Using ChatGPT in Foreign Language Research: An Overview

Selami Aydın

pp. 20 - 26   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2024.1045.2


Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI) that are based on the large language model (LLM) may profoundly affect the foreign language research process. Under this perspective, a chatbot, ChatGPT, has become popular in mainstream education and foreign language teaching, learning, and research. On the other hand, whether and how ChatGPT can be used in foreign language research remains a considerable question that is unanswered in the broadest sense. This paper will provide an overview of using ChatGPT in foreign language research. For this purpose, the paper first introduces ChatGPT and then draws its chronological and pedagogical framework. Then, after introducing its features, the paper lists, and discusses the potential role in foreign language research. Finally, it presents basic information regarding its limitations and ethical issues. 

Keywords: Artificial intelligence; ChatGPT; research on foreign language

Supporting Every Learner: Investigating Gender Differences in Autonomy

Ali Kurt

pp. 27 - 39   |  DOI: 10.29329/irelt.2024.1045.3


Autonomy in education, particularly within the English as a Second Language (ESL) context, has been widely recognized for enhancing self-directed learning and the ability to shape one’s own educational journey. This study compares the motivational differences between male and female ESL students, using a quantitative research design. A structured questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 13 students who were enrolled in a pre-sessional English program at a private university in Istanbul, Turkey. The study revealed gender-specific differences in autonomy and motivational dynamics. Female students had a higher level of self-motivation and intrinsic interest and favored self-study with the mindset that English proficiency is a means to enhance job prospects. In contrast, male students demonstrated a preference for collaborative learning and systematic approaches, wherein they connected new knowledge to their existing understanding. Whereas both genders had a similar perception of the benefits of watching movies/series, females got more involved in optional homework and conversations with native speakers and demonstrated greater autonomy in self-assessment compared to males, who viewed the teacher as playing a more central role in the learning process. In conclusion, these findings contribute to a nuanced understanding of the complicated motivational dynamics unique to each gender in English language learning, which suggests the need for customized pedagogical approaches that facilitate inclusive learning environments, catering to the unique motivational needs of male and female students. 

Keywords: Autonomy, Intrinsic motivation, Motivational disparities, Gender differences, English language learning